Isman Instructional Design Model

We were instructed to find an instructional design model which we weren’t familiar with and answer some basic questions about it.  I found a kind of obscure one, referred to as the Isman model of instructional design, which I will discuss here.

The Isman model’s goal is very similar to any instructional design model’s goal: “to point up how to plan, develop, implement, evaluate, and organize full learning activities effectively so that it will ensure competent performance by students.” (Isman 2011)  Here is a basic visualization of how the model works (Isman 2011):

Image

It is based on behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism – some of my favorite learning theories! – but with an overarching goal of reinforcing long-term learning.  It has five basic steps in the design process:  Input, Process, Output, Feedback, and Learning.  Within each step are stages.  Most of these stages seem familiar to me from the ADDIE model, though named differently.

Step 1, Input, is similar to both the Analyze and Design phases in the ADDIE model.  One of the main differences between the two in this part of the design model is that the Isman model emphasizes “modern instructional media” (such as multimedia, internet, projection, film, etc.) as well as “classical instructional media” (such as books, journals, pictures, etc.), and it also emphasizes active learning (whereas I don’t remember there being an emphasis on any of these things in the ADDIE model).

Step 2, Process, is similar to the next two phases in the ADDIE model: Development and Implementation.  The ADDIE model seems to go into more detail in this part of the instructional design process.  Between both the Development and Implementation phases, there are seven different steps for the instructional designer to complete.  In the Process stage of the Isman model, he only lists three steps:  Test prototypes (similar to the ADDIE step for validating instruction), Redesigning (also part of the validating instruction step in the ADDIE model), and Teaching Activities (which is the last step – conducting instruction – in the Implementation phase of the ADDIE model).

Step 3 and 4, Output and Feedback, go along with the final phase of the ADDIE model – Evaluation.  Basically, this step is the assessment and analysis of results, followed by a redesign of instruction if necessary (based on said results).  Step 5, Learning, basically has the Instructional Designer look over the results and determine whether long term learning is occurring, and if not, reteach is necessary (and redesign for future instruction would also be necessary).  I guess that kind of goes along with the Evaluation phase of the ADDIE model, too.

So, would I use this model to develop instructional design?  It has all the basic steps I would want in an instructional design model… but the thing is, it seems really similar to the more common models out there.  The big difference, I suppose, is the detail given to the end product (assessment/redesign/analysis of data) seems more in-depth in this model than in the ADDIE model, whereas the detail given to the actual initial design and process of teaching seems more in-depth in the ADDIE model.  I think both design and analysis of results are probably equally important, so perhaps it would be best to do some conglomeration of the two.  The way my current project is set up, I think there is more focus on the design, which I suppose falls more under the umbrella of the ADDIE model.

It’s important to note that learning theories (like behaviorism / cognitivism / constructivism) is different from an instructional design model.  I see learning theories as guides to how you should design your instruction.  If you are of the belief, for example, that learners learn most effectively through social constructivist means, then your ID model should emphasize a design structure that supports that learning theory.  So, in effect, one drives the other.  It’s important to do it in that order, too — if you develop an instructional design first, then consider your learning theories later, you will likely have to start from scratch as your instruction might not fit under the learning theory you subscribe to.  And this is especially important if you are developing instructional design for a client.  Make sure to ask their opinion on learning theory before diving into your ID!  Otherwise your time and energy may be wasted.

Isman, A. (2011) Instructional Design in Education: New Model.  The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1).  Accessed from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ926562.pdf

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Final Blog for ID!

Think about instructional design in general. What have you learned this semester about instructional design and development? What about process? What else?

Instructional design and development is a much more in depth process than I originally thought.  As a teacher, it would be awesome if we had the time to actually fully go through the ID process when developing our instruction.  We’re trained in ID, it’s expected that we are that thorough with every lesson, but the truth is, most teachers do not have the time to do that much in depth instructional design, at least not until they have been teaching for a long time and have time to start refining their lessons and fine tuning their analysis, assessment, and evaluations.

Also, what did you learn from the Evaluation of the product? What would you do differently next time? How much did you learn from the process and evaluation that will make you a better future instructional designer?

The World Geography STAAR Review went really well.  The goal was to review all of our testing standards (the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills of World Geography), focusing specifically on areas that students showed they were lacking based on benchmark tests, while keeping students interactive and engaged, and overall the results were qualitatively and quantitatively great.

The pre-quiz, which is a 42 question matching quiz covering the different physical and human characteristics of different regions of the world, really freaked out a lot of the students.  Many of them were overwhelmed at the number of questions, and if they did not know the answer to the first two or three, they would shut down.  After letting them work on it individually for awhile, we allowed them to work on it with a partner to discuss and change answers as they seemed fit.  They were not allowed to use other resources.  When they turned it in, we graded it to get an average of 41.4% correct – or 17.4 questions correct – for all World Geography students.  The regions that as a group they got mostly correct were the United States & Canada; Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean; Europe; Australia & Islands; and Antarctica.  All regions of Asia and Africa were pretty dismal, and South America was less understood than we had anticipated.

We continued with the instruction, first reviewing the physical features, human features, and events & issues of each continent.  This was the introduction to our Book of Knowledge (BOK, which becomes their study guide), the game concept of our teamwork, and the first of many days of matching cards.  It was wildly successful.  Students were engaged, they were speaking in academic language as they discussed which cards should go where, even arguing poetically about World Geography.  It was very exciting to witness.  Even students who were very vocal and determined not to work with the group to which they were assigned found themselves swept up in the competition of getting their matching done first, and, whether they noticed or not, became very good, collaborative teammates.

We added a few rules as the matching games went on.  For one, it turned out to be a headache for teachers to try and check every group at every moment they requested it – it took much too long.  So our first change in rules was that teams could only ask for assistance or checks from the teacher three times before the teacher started to deduct points from their team.  This helped immensely.  Students began working through the smaller problems themselves as a team and were more conservative with their assistance requests.  Another rule that was added was the “No Cell Phones or you are disqualified!” rule.  We are a Bring Your Own Device campus, and many teachers do not mind students listening to music, however many students began using the device to look up answers – so to make it easy, we just said no cell phones during the matching portion, because some students were accusing others of winning the day’s “quest” only because they were cheating by using their devices inappropriately.  The last (but certainly not least!) rule was that they were not allowed to speak to other teams unless given explicit permission by the teacher.  This helped to control the environment and reinforce students staying with and only interacting with their assigned group, plus it helped minimize cheating or unfair advantages.

We also had a kind of unexpected assembly during 8th period one Friday.  Most of the teachers did not see their 8th period that day, so we had to adjust the instruction so that 8th period classes received the information without getting too far behind.  We ended up giving them copies of the key for that day so they could transfer the information to their BOK.

Toward the end of the review week, we gave the post-quiz (which was the same 42 question quiz) to students, this time enforcing that they do it individually and without resources (such as their notes or the book).  We graded the quiz and had a significant rise in percentage correct, settling at 58.2%, a 16.8% increase.  Based on the results, students still seem to struggle with the concept of “Sub-Saharan” Africa, and they confuse the different regions of Asia.  They especially seem to forget that Southwest Asia is also referred to as part of the Middle East, so, although we have mentioned it countless times in our instruction, we probably need to address it some other way so that it sticks.  As a PLC, we acknowledged that our calendar required us to rush through certain regions, Asia especially, and we will address that in next year’s calendar.  This year’s calendar did not account for reviewing before the STAAR, and even had new instruction scheduled for beyond the STAAR test, which is not acceptable since the World Geography STAAR test can ask questions about any of the state TEKS.  Next year we will adjust the calendar to allow for more time to be spent learning about each region, covering all material by two to three weeks prior to the STAAR test so that there is time to review.

Overall, the teachers felt like the review went really well, and was, “better than the worksheet reviews we have done in the past.”  They felt the students enjoyed it, and the students agreed, though they did say that eight days of matching cards “got a little old,” so we might need to break it up a little bit when we organize this review in the future.

The biggest thing I learned about ID through this project is that when dealing with longer term instructional design, it is really important to follow the design document and timeline, but to remember to be flexible.  If something that you planned for is not working the way it should, you should absolutely change it when you recognize something is not working right.  We did not immediately change our instruction when things weren’t quite working the way we intended, but once we changed the instruction, things went much smoother and we felt it was more effective.  This applied to certain rules that were applied, and even the method of instruction itself in some cases.  So I guess, always maintain flexibility when it is in the best interest of the learner (not just because it might make your job easier :)).

Instructional Design

Designing instruction means having a learning objective in mind, and developing with purpose a method of teaching it.  It means analyzing, editing, assessing and evaluating.  Reflection and further fine tuning are essential to its continued success.

To design instruction professionally, you need to have both logical and creative sides to you.  You must be able to come up with an achievable, measurable goal, then analyze the needs of all parties involved from all different perspectives.  Your reporting must be detailed, with Design Documents and Job Aides that easily understood yet thorough.  That being said, in designing the instruction itself, and the materials used, those often take creative skills. 

I’d also that being a professional instructional designer also takes patience and poise (especially among difficult clients). 🙂

Job Aid for QR Codes in the Classroom

QR Codes in the Classroom

 

Introduction

Many teachers would like to incorporate more technology into the classroom but are deterred due to many factors:  they do not feel comfortable with the technology themselves, they do not have time to fully develop good lessons involving technology, they are hesitant to rely on technology for their lesson in case something goes wrong with the technology (rendering their lesson useless), or they simply do not know what sort of technology is available and how to use it in their classroom.  QR codes are a relatively simple, versatile way to incorporate some technology into a class.  In this three hour, face to face interactive professional development workshop, participants will become familiar with QR codes and their many uses, and will develop a ready-to-go lesson that they will commit to using in the following school year.


Starting the Workshop

In preparation for the class, a few things will need to be done well in advance.

Three Weeks Before
Double check that the PowerPoint is edited the way you want it.  Make sure the room you are scheduled to be in has access to the necessary technology, and that you will have the technology you need reserved in your name for that day.  Specifically, you will want to have a laptop cart, iPad cart, document camera, a laptop for your personal use, a wireless mouse, and extra outlets/extension cords for the day of the workshop.  If you do not personally own a Smartphone, try to arrange to borrow one for the purpose of this workshop.

One Week Before

In the week before your workshop, make sure that the QR codes work, that the links you have linked from your PowerPoint still work, and make any copies you will need for the workshop. 

Day of Workshop, before it begins:

Technology
Be sure that the internet is up and running, and that you are able to connect to your device(s).  Have your projector ready to go, connected with your laptop which should be displaying the corresponding QR Codes in the Classroom PowerPoint.  You may also want to have your QR code websites loaded so that you can easily switch to them without wasting any time.

Classroom Materials
Make sure you also have classroom materials, such as the practice QR codes for scanning, copied and ready to go.  You could even place them on the participants’ desk or table to save time.

Checklists and Surveys
Also make sure that you have your checklists that you will use to assess the success of your participants ready to go.  You should also have plenty of copies of the post-workshop evaluation printed.


Timeline

The session should take approximately three hours.  A timeline of how the session should go is as follows (demonstrated in minutes/hours):

0:00-5:00               Introductions – Tell learners about yourself and your experience in education and technology.  Have learners introduce themselves also.  (Slide 1 of ppt)

5:00-15:00             Introduction to QR codes – Explain the definition of a QR code and examples of their uses.  (Slide 2-7 of ppt)

15:00-30:00           Discuss various QR code scanner applications, then assist learners in gaining access to the store for their device, downloading a scanner app, and using that app.  (Slide 8 and 9 of ppt)

30:00-50:00           Discuss the types of QR codes (URL, Phone Number, Text, SMS, Business Contact), and have them scan different QR codes to see how each type works on their device.  Go to the website www.qrcode.kaywa.com to demonstrate and practice.

50:00-1:10:00        Introduce different websites that can be used to create QR codes, and demonstrate how to create QR codes and use them in word documents.  (You will use the same website from the previous step, but also use slide 10-13 of ppt)

1:10:00-1:30:00     Demonstrate how to copy and paste a QR code into a word document (right click on the QR code image, click “copy image,” open a new word document, then right click and press “paste”).  Learners will practice by creating a URL QR code, a text QR code, and a Business Contact QR code, and then successfully place each code with a label on a word document. 

1:30:00-1:50:00     Discuss more ways people have used QR codes in the classroom – instructor will show examples, and learners will brainstorm and list general ways they could use QR codes in their own lessons, and then they will generate a short list of specific lessons that QR codes can be incorporated into.  (Slide 15)

1:50:00-2:00:00     Short Break

2:00:00-2:10:00     Instructor will tell learners the instructions for the last piece of the session – that they will create a ready-to-implement lesson (or part of a lesson, like an opener or closure) to be used in the following school year.  They will have about 35 minutes to create the lesson (ideally modifying an existing lesson to include QR codes, but they can create one from scratch if they prefer).  They can work with like-subject and/or like-grade level teachers or individually.  The instructor will be walking around to help and answer questions. (Slide 16 of ppt)

2:10:00-2:45:00     Learners will work on their lessons

2:45:00-2:55:00     Learners will present their lessons and discuss the benefits and drawbacks to incorporating technology like QR codes into their lessons.

2:55:00-3:00:00     Learners will complete an end-of-session survey covering how they think the training went, how helpful it was, how much they think they learned, and whether they would recommend it to another teacher.

Appendix A:  Checklist assessment

Checklist Assessment:

  • Learner can discuss what a QR code is.
  • Learner can discuss ways that QR codes can be used.
  • Learner can select, download and use their own scanner application.
  • Learner can determine which type of QR code would best suit individual scenario purposes.
  • Learner can create their own QR code.
  • Learner can adapt QR classroom example lessons to fit their subject or grade level.
  • Learner can develop their own QR classroom lesson.
  • Learner can assess the benefits and drawbacks of integrating technology (like QR codes) into the classroom.

Appendix B:  End of Workshop Evaluation

QR Codes in the Classroom: Evaluation

 

 

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

This workshop was well organized.

5

4

3

2

1

The presenter was knowledgeable about the material.

5

4

3

2

1

I understand what a QR code is.

5

4

3

2

1

I understand how to create a QR code.

5

4

3

2

1

I understand how to find and download apps that will let me scan QR codes.

5

4

3

2

1

I understand how to scan and use QR codes.

5

4

3

2

1

I understand the different types of QR codes and when to use them.

5

4

3

2

1

I am familiar with different ways I can use QR codes in the classroom.

5

4

3

2

1

I feel confident about incorporating QR codes into my curriculum next school year.

5

4

3

2

1

Overall, this workshop was very useful to me.

5

4

3

2

1

 

Please include any additional comments below:

 

My experience with Instructional Design thus far

Creating the design document for my “QR codes in the classroom” professional development has been a tedious process, reminding me of my undergrad days of lesson planning (the writing of them especially).  As an undergrad, we were required to prepare very detailed lesson plans for every lesson, which we were assured we would be doing as actual teachers in the classroom.  Then I became a teacher where I have not once in seven years had to create super detailed lesson plans for every lesson (or any lesson, really).  Some schools have required a basic outline of objectives, lesson activities, and assessment, but the details required in lesson planning or instructional design have yet to be required.  That being said, if teachers had the time and resources to put this much thought into every lesson, we would most likely have a lot more effective learning going on in the classroom.

Developing my design document has helped me to fully envision this professional development from beginning to end, and by considering all the previous learning from both this graduate program in instructional technology and other PD/classes/workshops along the way, I feel like the professional development we provide this summer will be informative, effective, interesting, and directly applicable to the learners that attend.  Thorough planning, as we are doing with our design document, will ensure a more successful outcome — and with proper planning, we also have built-in evaluation to see if it was as effective or successful as we would have liked.  This allows us to make necessary changes for subsequent delivery of the same material, allowing the design to get better and better with reflection.

Analysis & Design

How are analysis and design related for you? Think about it in the context of the articles and chapters we have read thus far. How closely should these two pieces of the model connect? How does the Information R/Evolution affect each of these?

Analysis is really the foundation of Instructional Design.  Without analysis, Instructional Design would be meaningless, and certainly ineffective.  In every model of Instructional Design that I’ve read about (in this class and in previous classes), analysis is always the first step.  Instructional Design without analyzing the problem and figuring out your goal is not design… it’s shooting in the dark.  So in that regard, analysis is imperative to Instructional Design.  Analysis could potentially stand on its own, but ID is nothing with analysis.

The video about the Information R/Evolution is a creative way to showcase how the entire discourse and definition of information has changed as the way we store, access, and share information has evolved, and that it will continue to do so (especially if we can think beyond our previous assumptions about information and the best way to store/access/share it).  With that in mind, this Information R/Evolution affects analysis in that our means of collecting data and information are rapidly changing and expanding, which can be both good and bad.  It’s good in that we are never lacking the information we seek – but it can be bad in that we now have information overload and must get better at sorting and distinguishing between good source and bad source.  Instructional Design is affected by this revolution in part because it relies on analysis, but also because ID serves as the vehicle for sharing information.  So as our means of storing/accessing/sharing information makes a huge paradigm shift, our vehicle for delivering that data in a meaningful way must shift as well, lest it be rendered obsolete.  If ID does not change with the times, it does a disservice to the learner.  As the video says towards the end, we must be ready to, “harness, create, critique, organize, and understand” information in new ways if we wish to remain relevant.